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The Western Allies already had 96 divisions at or near the front, with an estimated ten more divisions en route from the United Kingdom. Additional Allied airborne units remained in England.

The Germans could field a total of 55 understrength divisions. Adolf Hitler first officially outlined his surprise counter-offensive to his astonished generals on 16 September The assault's ambitious goal was to pierce the thinly held lines of the U.

Hitler initially promised his generals a total of 18 infantry and 12 armored or mechanized divisions "for planning purposes. On the Eastern Front , the Soviets' Operation Bagration during the summer had destroyed much of Germany's Army Group Center Heeresgruppe Mitte.

The extremely swift operation ended only when the advancing Soviet Red Army forces outran their supplies. By November, it was clear that Soviet forces were preparing for a winter offensive.

Meanwhile, the Allied air offensive of early had effectively grounded the Luftwaffe , leaving the German Army with little battlefield intelligence and no way to interdict Allied supplies.

The converse was equally damaging; daytime movement of German forces was rapidly noticed, and interdiction of supplies combined with the bombing of the Romanian oil fields starved Germany of oil and gasoline.

This fuel shortage intensified after the Soviets overran those fields in the course of their August Jassy-Kishinev Offensive. One of the few advantages held by the German forces in November was that they were no longer defending all of Western Europe.

Their front lines in the west had been considerably shortened by the Allied offensive and were much closer to the German heartland.

This drastically reduced their supply problems despite Allied control of the air. Additionally, their extensive telephone and telegraph network meant that radios were no longer necessary for communications, which lessened the effectiveness of Allied Ultra intercepts.

Nevertheless, some 40—50 messages per day were decrypted by Ultra. They recorded the quadrupling of German fighter forces and a term used in an intercepted Luftwaffe message—Jägeraufmarsch literally "Hunter Deployment" —implied preparation for an offensive operation.

Hitler felt that his mobile reserves allowed him to mount one major offensive. Although he realized nothing significant could be accomplished in the Eastern Front , he still believed an offensive against the Western Allies, whom he considered militarily inferior to the Red Army, would have some chances of success.

After the war ended, this assessment was generally viewed as unrealistic, given Allied air superiority throughout Europe and their ability to continually disrupt German offensive operations.

Hitler's plan called for a Blitzkrieg attack through the weakly defended Ardennes, mirroring the successful German offensive there during the Battle of France in —aimed at splitting the armies along the U.

The disputes between Montgomery and Bradley were well known, and Hitler hoped he could exploit this disunity. If the attack were to succeed in capturing Antwerp, four complete armies would be trapped without supplies behind German lines.

Several senior German military officers, including Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model and Gerd von Rundstedt , expressed concern as to whether the goals of the offensive could be realized.

Model and von Rundstedt both believed aiming for Antwerp was too ambitious, given Germany's scarce resources in late At the same time, they felt that maintaining a purely defensive posture as had been the case since Normandy would only delay defeat, not avert it.

They thus developed alternative, less ambitious plans that did not aim to cross the Meuse River in German and Dutch: Maas ; Model's being Unternehmen Herbstnebel Operation Autumn Mist and von Rundstedt's Fall Martin "Plan Martin".

The two field marshals combined their plans to present a joint "small solution" to Hitler. Rundstedt later testified that while he recognized the merit of Hitler's operational plan, he saw from the very first that "all, absolutely all conditions for the possible success of such an offensive were lacking.

Model, commander of German Army Group B Heeresgruppe B , and von Rundstedt, overall commander of the German Army Command in the West OB West , were put in charge of carrying out the operation.

In the west supply problems began significantly to impede Allied operations, even though the opening of the port of Antwerp in late November improved the situation somewhat.

The positions of the Allied armies stretched from southern France all the way north to the Netherlands. German planning for the counteroffensive rested on the premise that a successful strike against thinly manned stretches of the line would halt Allied advances on the entire Western Front.

The Wehrmacht ' s code name for the offensive was Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein "Operation Watch on the Rhine" , after the German patriotic hymn Die Wacht am Rhein , a name that deceptively implied the Germans would be adopting a defensive posture along the Western Front.

The Germans also referred to it as "Ardennenoffensive" Ardennes Offensive and Rundstedt-Offensive, both names being generally used nowadays in modern Germany.

The battle was militarily defined by the Allies as the Ardennes Counteroffensive, which included the German drive and the American effort to contain and later defeat it.

The phrase Battle of the Bulge was coined by contemporary press to describe the way the Allied front line bulged inward on wartime news maps.

While the Ardennes Counteroffensive is the correct term in Allied military language, the official Ardennes-Alsace campaign reached beyond the Ardennes battle region, and the most popular description in English speaking countries remains simply the Battle of the Bulge.

The OKW decided by mid-September, at Hitler's insistence, that the offensive would be mounted in the Ardennes, as was done in In German forces had passed through the Ardennes in three days before engaging the enemy, but the plan called for battle in the forest itself.

The main forces were to advance westward to the Meuse River, then turn northwest for Antwerp and Brussels. The close terrain of the Ardennes would make rapid movement difficult, though open ground beyond the Meuse offered the prospect of a successful dash to the coast.

Four armies were selected for the operation. Adolf Hitler personally selected for the counter-offensive on the northern shoulder of the western front the best troops available and officers he trusted.

The lead role in the attack was given to 6th Panzer Army , commanded by SS- Oberstgruppenführer Joseph "Sepp" Dietrich.

It included the most experienced formation of the Waffen-SS : the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler. It also contained the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend.

They were given priority for supply and equipment and assigned the shortest route to the primary objective of the offensive, Antwerp, [28] : 1—64 starting from the northernmost point on the intended battlefront, nearest the important road network hub of Monschau.

The Fifth Panzer Army under General Hasso von Manteuffel was assigned to the middle sector with the objective of capturing Brussels.

The Seventh Army , under General Erich Brandenberger , was assigned to the southernmost sector, near the Luxembourgish city of Echternach , with the task of protecting the flank.

This Army was made up of only four infantry divisions, with no large-scale armored formations to use as a spearhead unit.

As a result, they made little progress throughout the battle. Also participating in a secondary role was the Fifteenth Army , under General Gustav-Adolf von Zangen.

Recently brought back up to strength and re-equipped after heavy fighting during Operation Market Garden, it was located on the far north of the Ardennes battlefield and tasked with holding U.

For the offensive to be successful, four criteria were deemed critical: the attack had to be a complete surprise; the weather conditions had to be poor to neutralize Allied air superiority and the damage it could inflict on the German offensive and its supply lines; [41] the progress had to be rapid—the Meuse River, halfway to Antwerp, had to be reached by day 4; and Allied fuel supplies would have to be captured intact along the way because the combined Wehrmacht forces were short on fuel.

The General Staff estimated they only had enough fuel to cover one third to one half of the ground to Antwerp in heavy combat conditions.

The plan originally called for just under 45 divisions, including a dozen panzer and Panzergrenadier divisions forming the armored spearhead and various infantry units to form a defensive line as the battle unfolded.

By this time the German Army suffered from an acute manpower shortage, and the force had been reduced to around 30 divisions. Although it retained most of its armor, there were not enough infantry units because of the defensive needs in the East.

These 30 newly rebuilt divisions used some of the last reserves of the German Army. Among them were Volksgrenadier "People's Grenadier" units formed from a mix of battle-hardened veterans and recruits formerly regarded as too young, too old or too frail to fight.

Training time, equipment and supplies were inadequate during the preparations. German fuel supplies were precarious—those materials and supplies that could not be directly transported by rail had to be horse-drawn to conserve fuel, and the mechanized and panzer divisions would depend heavily on captured fuel.

As a result, the start of the offensive was delayed from 27 November to 16 December. Before the offensive the Allies were virtually blind to German troop movement.

During the liberation of France, the extensive network of the French Resistance had provided valuable intelligence about German dispositions.

Once they reached the German border, this source dried up. In France, orders had been relayed within the German army using radio messages enciphered by the Enigma machine , and these could be picked up and decrypted by Allied code-breakers headquartered at Bletchley Park , to give the intelligence known as Ultra.

In Germany such orders were typically transmitted using telephone and teleprinter , and a special radio silence order was imposed on all matters concerning the upcoming offensive.

The foggy autumn weather also prevented Allied reconnaissance aircraft from correctly assessing the ground situation.

German units assembling in the area were even issued charcoal instead of wood for cooking fires to cut down on smoke and reduce chances of Allied observers deducing a troop buildup was underway.

For these reasons Allied High Command considered the Ardennes a quiet sector, relying on assessments from their intelligence services that the Germans were unable to launch any major offensive operations this late in the war.

What little intelligence they had led the Allies to believe precisely what the Germans wanted them to believe-—that preparations were being carried out only for defensive, not offensive, operations.

The Allies relied too much on Ultra, not human reconnaissance. In fact, because of the Germans' efforts, the Allies were led to believe that a new defensive army was being formed around Düsseldorf in the northern Rhineland, possibly to defend against British attack.

This was done by increasing the number of flak Fl ug a bwehr k anonen, i. The Allies at this point thought the information was of no importance.

All of this meant that the attack, when it came, completely surprised the Allied forces. Remarkably, the U. Third Army intelligence chief, Colonel Oscar Koch , the U.

First Army intelligence chief and the SHAEF intelligence officer Brigadier General Kenneth Strong all correctly predicted the German offensive capability and intention to strike the U.

VIII Corps area. These predictions were largely dismissed by the U. Bedell Smith sent Strong to warn Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, the commander of the 12th Army Group, of the danger.

Bradley's response was succinct: "Let them come. O'Donnell writes that on 8 December U. Rangers at great cost took Hill during the Battle of the Hürtgen Forest.

The next day GIs who relieved the Rangers reported a considerable movement of German troops inside the Ardennes in the enemy's rear, but that no one in the chain of command connected the dots.

Because the Ardennes was considered a quiet sector, considerations of economy of force led it to be used as a training ground for new units and a rest area for units that had seen hard fighting.

The U. Two major special operations were planned for the offensive. By October it was decided that Otto Skorzeny , the German SS-commando who had rescued the former Italian dictator Benito Mussolini , was to lead a task force of English-speaking German soldiers in " Operation Greif ".

These soldiers were to be dressed in American and British uniforms and wear dog tags taken from corpses and prisoners of war.

Their job was to go behind American lines and change signposts, misdirect traffic, generally cause disruption and seize bridges across the Meuse River.

By late November another ambitious special operation was added: Col. Friedrich August von der Heydte was to lead a Fallschirmjäger - Kampfgruppe paratrooper combat group in Operation Stösser , a night-time paratroop drop behind the Allied lines aimed at capturing a vital road junction near Malmedy.

German intelligence had set 20 December as the expected date for the start of the upcoming Soviet offensive , aimed at crushing what was left of German resistance on the Eastern Front and thereby opening the way to Berlin.

It was hoped that Soviet leader Stalin would delay the start of the operation once the German assault in the Ardennes had begun and wait for the outcome before continuing.

After 20 July attempt on Hitler's life, and the close advance of the Red Army which would seize the site on 27 January , Hitler and his staff had been forced to abandon the Wolfsschanze headquarters in East Prussia , in which they had coordinated much of the fighting on the Eastern Front.

After a brief visit to Berlin, Hitler traveled on his Führersonderzug "Special Train of the Führer" Leader to Giessen on 11 December, taking up residence in the Adlerhorst eyrie command complex, co-located with OB West's base at Kransberg Castle.

Believing in omens and the successes of his early war campaigns that had been planned at Kransberg, Hitler had chosen the site from which he had overseen the successful campaign against France and the Low Countries.

Von Rundstedt set up his operational headquarters near Limburg , close enough for the generals and Panzer Corps commanders who were to lead the attack to visit Adlerhorst on 11 December, traveling there in an SS-operated bus convoy.

With the castle acting as overflow accommodation, the main party was settled into the Adlerhorst's Haus 2 command bunker, including Gen.

Alfred Jodl , Gen. Wilhelm Keitel , Gen. Blumentritt , von Manteuffel and Dietrich. Model told him it was necessary to make the attempt: "It must be done because this offensive is the last chance to conclude the war favorably.

The Americans' initial impression was that this was the anticipated, localized counterattack resulting from the Allies' recent attack in the Wahlerscheid sector to the north, where the 2nd Division had knocked a sizable dent in the Siegfried Line.

Heavy snowstorms engulfed parts of the Ardennes area. While having the effect of keeping the Allied aircraft grounded, the weather also proved troublesome for the Germans because poor road conditions hampered their advance.

Poor traffic control led to massive traffic jams and fuel shortages in forward units. Nearly 10 hours into the assault, one of the German V-2 rockets destroyed the Cine Rex cinema in Antwerp , killing people, the highest death toll from a single rocket attack during the war.

In the center, von Manteuffel's Fifth Panzer Army attacked towards Bastogne and St. Vith , both road junctions of great strategic importance.

In the south, Brandenberger's Seventh Army pushed towards Luxembourg in its efforts to secure the flank from Allied attacks.

German Forces. While the Siege of Bastogne is often credited as the central point where the German offensive was stopped, [52] the battle for Elsenborn Ridge was actually the decisive component of the Battle of the Bulge, stopping the advance of the best equipped armored units of the German army and forcing them to reroute their troops to unfavorable alternative routes that considerably slowed their advance.

The attack on Monschau, Höfen, Krinkelt-Rocherath , and then Elsenborn Ridge was led by the units personally selected by Adolf Hitler.

The 6th Panzer Army was given priority for supply and equipment and was assigned the shortest route to the ultimate objective of the offensive, Antwerp.

Its newest and most powerful tank, the Tiger II heavy tank, consumed 7. The attacks by the Sixth Panzer Army's infantry units in the north fared badly because of unexpectedly fierce resistance by the U.

Kampfgruppe Peiper, at the head of Sepp Dietrich's Sixth Panzer Army, had been designated to take the Losheim-Losheimergraben road, a key route through the Losheim Gap , but it was closed by two collapsed overpasses that German engineers failed to repair during the first day.

To preserve the quantity of armor available, the infantry of the 9th Fallschirmjaeger Regiment, 3rd Fallschirmjaeger Division , had been ordered to clear the village first.

A single man Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon from the 99th Infantry Division along with four Forward Air Controllers held up the battalion of about German paratroopers until sunset, about , causing 92 casualties among the Germans.

This created a bottleneck in the German advance. Kampfgruppe Peiper did not begin his advance until nearly , more than 16 hours behind schedule and didn't reach Bucholz Station until the early morning of 17 December.

Their intention was to control the twin villages of Rocherath-Krinkelt which would clear a path to the high ground of Elsenborn Ridge.

Occupation of this dominating terrain would allow control of the roads to the south and west and ensure supply to Kampfgruppe Peiper's armored task force.

At on 17 December, Kampfgruppe Peiper was near the hamlet of Baugnez , on the height halfway between the town of Malmedy and Ligneuville, when they encountered elements of the th Field Artillery Observation Battalion , U.

They were disarmed and, with some other Americans captured earlier approximately men , sent to stand in a field near the crossroads under light guard.

About fifteen minutes after Peiper's advance guard passed through, the main body under the command of SS- Sturmbannführer Werner Pötschke arrived.

The SS troopers suddenly opened fire on the prisoners. As soon as the firing began, the prisoners panicked. Most were shot where they stood, though some managed to flee.

Accounts of the killing vary, but at least 84 of the POWs were murdered. A few survived, and news of the killings of prisoners of war spread through Allied lines.

Driving to the south-east of Elsenborn, Kampfgruppe Peiper entered Honsfeld, where they encountered one of the 99th Division's rest centers, clogged with confused American troops.

They quickly captured portions of the 3rd Battalion of the th Infantry Regiment. They destroyed a number of American armored units and vehicles, and took several dozen prisoners who were subsequently murdered.

Peiper advanced north-west towards Büllingen , keeping to the plan to move west, unaware that if he had turned north he had an opportunity to flank and trap the entire 2nd and 99th Divisions.

To the north, the th Volksgrenadier Division attempted to break through the defending line of the U. The 12th SS Panzer Division , reinforced by additional infantry Panzergrenadier and Volksgrenadier divisions, took the key road junction at Losheimergraben just north of Lanzerath and attacked the twin villages of Rocherath and Krinkelt.

Another, smaller massacre was committed in Wereth , Belgium, approximately 6. Eleven black American soldiers were tortured after surrendering and then shot by men of the 1st SS Panzer Division belonging to Schnellgruppe Knittel.

The perpetrators were never punished for this crime. By the evening the spearhead had pushed north to engage the U. Peiper's forces were already behind his timetable because of the stiff American resistance and because when the Americans fell back, their engineers blew up bridges and emptied fuel dumps.

Peiper's unit was delayed and his vehicles denied critically needed fuel. They took 36 hours to advance from the Eifel region to Stavelot, while the same advance required nine hours in Kampfgruppe Peiper attacked Stavelot on 18 December but was unable to capture the town before the Americans evacuated a large fuel depot.

Following this, 60 grenadiers advanced forward but were stopped by concentrated American defensive fire. After a fierce tank battle the next day, the Germans finally entered the town when U.

Capitalizing on his success and not wanting to lose more time, Peiper rushed an advance group toward the vital bridge at Trois-Ponts , leaving the bulk of his strength in Stavelot.

When they reached it at on 18 December, retreating U. At Cheneux, the advance guard was attacked by American fighter-bombers, destroying two tanks and five halftracks, blocking the narrow road.

The group began moving again at dusk at and was able to return to its original route at around Of the two bridges remaining between Kampfgruppe Peiper and the Meuse, the bridge over the Lienne was blown by the Americans as the Germans approached.

Peiper turned north and halted his forces in the woods between La Gleize and Stoumont. To Peiper's south, the advance of Kampfgruppe Hansen had stalled.

SS- Oberführer Mohnke ordered Schnellgruppe Knittel, which had been designated to follow Hansen, to instead move forward to support Peiper.

SS- Sturmbannführer Knittel crossed the bridge at Stavelot around against American forces trying to retake the town. Knittel pressed forward towards La Gleize, and shortly afterward the Americans recaptured Stavelot.

Peiper and Knittel both faced the prospect of being cut off. At dawn on 19 December, Peiper surprised the American defenders of Stoumont by sending infantry from the 2nd SS Panzergrenadier Regiment in an attack and a company of Fallschirmjäger to infiltrate their lines.

He followed this with a Panzer attack, gaining the eastern edge of the town. An American tank battalion arrived but, after a two-hour tank battle, Peiper finally captured Stoumont at Knittel joined up with Peiper and reported the Americans had recaptured Stavelot to their east.

Assessing his own situation, he determined that his Kampfgruppe did not have sufficient fuel to cross the bridge west of Stoumont and continue his advance.

He maintained his lines west of Stoumont for a while, until the evening of 19 December when he withdrew them to the village edge. On the same evening the U.

James Gavin arrived and deployed at La Gleize and along Peiper's planned route of advance. German efforts to reinforce Peiper were unsuccessful.

Kampfgruppe Hansen was still struggling against bad road conditions and stiff American resistance on the southern route.

Schnellgruppe Knittel was forced to disengage from the heights around Stavelot. Kampfgruppe Sandig, which had been ordered to take Stavelot, launched another attack without success.

Small units of the U. They failed and were forced to withdraw, and a number were captured, including battalion commander Maj.

Hal D. As he withdrew from Cheneux, American paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division engaged the Germans in fierce house-to-house fighting.

The Americans shelled Kampfgruppe Peiper on 22 December, and although the Germans had run out of food and had virtually no fuel, they continued to fight.

A Luftwaffe resupply mission went badly when SS- Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke insisted the grid coordinates supplied by Peiper were wrong, parachuting supplies into American hands in Stoumont.

In La Gleize, Peiper set up defenses waiting for German relief. M FABRICE GREGOIRE CLERMONT-EN-ARGONNE Support activities to animal production.

MONSIEUR JEAN LOISON PILLON Support activities to animal production. M JEAN DARDARE COMBLES-EN-BARROIS Support activities to animal production.

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